Getting tough on wildlife crime

First published on Enviromental Regulation and Information Centre on 02/10/2014

stopOver the past five years wildlife crime has doubled into a global trade worth $19 billion, making it the fourth largest illegal activity in the world (UNEP). Driven by rising demands for ivory, it is now no longer only a conservation, but also a security issue, threatening political and economic stability in central Africa.

Wildlife crime, including poaching, illegal harvesting, transitioning of illegal wildlife products and derivatives, as well as illegal commerce and use of those products, has become a serious trans-nationally organised criminal business. The welfare of animals is sidelined, which ultimately impacts on the conservation of the species concerned, putting whole ecosystems at risk. Low levels of awareness, low risk of detection and low levels of sanctions make it particularly attractive for international organised crime networks.

It is estimated that more than 1000 rhinoceroses were poached in South Africa in 2013, compared to 13 in 2007 and rhino horn is now more valuable than gold. Whilst, wildlife crime is highly lucrative, there are rarely any prosecutions. The consequences are wider than conservational, as wildlife trafficking can deprive many of the world’s most marginalised people, including indigenous communities, of important opportunities for sustainable livelihoods. It can fuel regional instability, for example in Central Africa some militia groups reportedly use revenues from wildlife trafficking to fund their activities. (COM (2014) 64 Communication on the EU Approach against Wildlife Trafficking)

In response to the escalation of wildlife crime, the UN Commission on Crime, Prevention and Criminal Justice produced a resolution (endorsed by the UN Economic and Social Council in July 2013), encouraging UN member states to make illicit trafficking in wild fauna and flora a serious crime when organised criminal groups are involved.  Such a move placed wildlife crime on the same level as human trafficking and drug trafficking.

The adoption of the resolution was seen as an important step in a process to ensure the full force of the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime can be applied to effectively tackle transnational organized wildlife and forest crime.

This year, the EU Parliament overwhelmingly (647 to 14 votes) passed a resolution calling on Member States and the EU Commission to:

  • Establish an EU plan of action against wildlife crime and trafficking with clear deliverables and timelines;
  • Call on Member States to introduce moratoria on all commercial imports, exports and domestic sales and purchases of tusks and raw and worked ivory products until wild elephant populations are no longer threatened by poaching;
  • Call for the destruction of ivory stockpiles by EU member states;
  • Increase the rate of prosecution and punishments for those involved in wildlife trafficking, this should include better training for police officers as well as the appointment of specialised wildlife crime prosecutors and by means of enhanced awareness, capacity and resources ensuring that wildlife criminals receive penalties which are commensurate with the seriousness of the crime;
  • To harmonise the different penalties across Member States and to ensure that illicit trafficking of wild fauna and flora with the involvement of organised criminal groups, is defined as a criminal offence punishable by up to four years in prison or more;
  • Establish a Wildlife Crime Unit within Europol;
  • Fully implement the recommendations in ‘Project WEB’ a joint Interpol/IFAW initiative to combat online wildlife trafficking;
  • Implement an EU ban on ivory sales;
  • Call on the Commission, through its work with African and Asian range states, to help those countries strengthen their policies and legal frameworks, increase law enforcement capacity, develop effective judicial systems and reinforce mechanisms to tackle corruption in order to better combat wildlife crime at local, national and regional levels

The resolution also urged the Commission and Council to include the fight against wildlife crime as a priority for development aid.

So why is wildlife trafficking a concern for the EU? Wildlife trafficking is one of the most serious threats to biodiversity. The survival of a number of species in the wild is directly jeopardised by poaching and the associated illegal trade. Trafficking also undermines many key goals in EU foreign policy and development support, including sustainable development, the rule of law, good governance and peace and stability.

The European Union is a significant market and a transit route for illegal trade in rhinoceros horn, ivory, and other animals and plants threatened by extinction. Because trade in the products of wildlife crime is global, and demand for them is growing in Southeast Asia, the Parliament urged the Commission to raise the issue in talks with the EU’s international partners and make it a priority when shaping EU aid policy.

However this is a non-binding vote and merely reflects the Parliaments wishes. One potential weakness in the resolution, as identified by the IUCN’s comment on the resolution, is that in order to ensure a well-balanced position on this subject, EU institutions have to acknowledge the role that well-managed, sustainable use and trade can play in promoting effective wildlife conservation and species recovery and as such it fails to adequately consider the importance of engaging local communities as active partners in conservation, and the need to take into account their interests while ensuring efforts to combat wildlife crime.

The EU Commission followed up on the resolution in February 2014 by consulting on how the EU can fight against dramatic increase in wildlife trafficking (closed April 2014).  The Commission sought views on issues related to wildlife trafficking, including the adequacy of the current framework, tools that might strengthen existing efforts to fight the problem, improvements in knowledge and data as well as the possibility of stronger sanctions.

The consultation concentrated on the most enigmatic land mammals and whilst this may highlight the issue of wildlife trade, it also means that many other species, which may be severely threatened by trade, are not given the attention that they require to prevent their decline and potential extinction including a number of species of birds, reptiles, plants and a number of marine mammals. The consultation also did not adequately address that poverty may be one of the drivers of illegal trade.

Some of the key issues with the current system is that it is too fragmented and EU policy on illegal wildlife trafficking currently emphasises law enforcement and negative sanctions for non-compliance but it could recognise the role played by well-regulated legal markets in both law enforcement and biodiversity conservation across a range of species. There are also potential developments to be gained in the use of focused sanctions on non-compliant states as well as on financial institutions channelling funds from organised crime. If illegal wildlife trade is placed on the same level as combating drugs and human trafficking, then wildlife trafficking should be part of the same process with approaches and methodologies determined by enforcement agencies, making illegal wildlife a part of the mandate of existing enforcement officers’ agencies with the appropriate training.

Based on the results of the consultation and the outcome of the expert conference held in April 2014, it is expected that the European Commission will propose to the next Environment Commissioner to review the existing policies and measures relating to wildlife trafficking within the EU to enable Member States to react more effectively to the current wildlife crime crisis.

Key Facts

  • In 2012 poachers killed approximately 22,000 elephants;
  • Since 2010, about 2500 rhinoceros have been poached in South Africa, which accounts for 80% of the whole population of African rhinoceroses;
  • The world’s tiger population has decreased from 100 000 a century ago to less than 3500 today;
  • It is estimated that illegal logging accounts for up to 30% of the global timber trade and contributes to more of 50% of tropical deforestation in Central Africa, the Amazon and South East Asia.

Reducing Biodiversity Decline

First published 03/11/2014 on Environmental Regulatory Information Centre

biodiversityIn 2010, at the tenth Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD COP 10), government leaders agreed to a set of targets, known as the Aichi targets, to be met by 2020.

The CBD was adopted on 22 May 1992 and entered into force on 29 December 1993. There are currently 193 parties to the Convention, which aims to promote the conservation of biodiversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources.

The Aichi targets set 20 goals, which cover everything from avoiding extinctions of threatened species, to reducing subsidies that are harmful to the environment, to protecting 17% of the Earth’s land and 10% of its seas by 2020.

Nearly half way towards that deadline, a new report launched at the twelfth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the CBD (CBD COP 12), held in October 2014 in Pyeongchang, Republic of Korea, states that these targets are unlikely to be met with the pressures on biodiversity getting worse and in many countries biodiversity still in decline. At present, only about 13% of land and 1.6% of our oceans currently lie within protected areas, and half of nature’s most important sites remain unprotected (IUCN, 2012 IUCN Report, Nature+ Towards Nature Based Solutions).

The analysis of progress on the 2020 targets however did indicate that awareness of the problem had improved and efforts to raise funds to tackle the problem were accelerating, just not significantly enough.

One of the major challenges to achieving these targets is a lack of understanding of how much it will cost countries to reach them.

It was no surprise that at COP12, one of the most contentious negotiations item on the agenda was financing. A report from the High-Level Panel on global assessment of resources for implementing the CBD’s Strategic Plan for Biodiversity estimated that it will cost between US$150 billion and US$440 billion per year to achieve the Aichi Targets by 2020. This is several magnitudes higher than current expenditures, estimated between US$51 and US$53 billion annually. (CBD, Resourcing the Aichi Biodiversity Targets: A First Assessment of the Resources Required for Implementing the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020)

Aichi Target 20 states: “By 2020, at the latest, the mobilization of financial resources for effectively implementing the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 from all sources, and in accordance with the consolidated and agreed process in the Strategy for Resource Mobilization, should increase substantially from the current levels.” 

At the Conference, developed countries reaffirmed the commitment that they made in Hyderabad (COP 11 in 2012), which was to double international financial flows for biodiversity conservation by 2015 and at least maintain this level by 2020. Additionally, for the first time, all governments committed to find ways to increase domestic resources for effective implementation of the Aichi Targets. There had been substantial disagreement on how to implement the funding decision made at Hyderabad.

This time, the participants decided to use average annual biodiversity funding for the years 2006-2010 as a baseline. In particular the targets are the least developed countries and the small island developing States, as well as countries with economies in transition.

At the Conference, governments also unanimously called for the new development agenda to integrate biodiversity into universal sustainable development goals adopted as the “Gangwon Declaration“.

In the declaration, signatories agreed to make biodiversity a major issue in future discussions for setting sustainable development goals and the Post-2015 Development Agenda of the U.N. The aim of the Declaration is to enhanced implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and achievement of the Aichi Biodiversity targets.

The Strategic Plan provides an overarching framework on biodiversity, not only for the biodiversity-related conventions, but for the entire United Nations system and all other partners engaged in biodiversity management and policy development. The Aichi targets are incorporated within the plan.

The adoption of the “Gangwon Declaration” was an important message from the CBD to the UN General Assembly, which is finalising the post 2015 UN development agenda and sustainable development goals (SD goals). The effect of the declaration was to highlight that biodiversity protection will be crucial to the achievement of these SD goals. The SD goals are being developed to replace, in 2015, the UN’s Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that were introduced at the UN’s 2000 Millennium Summit. The aim is to include biodiversity preservation as one of the development goals for the coming years.

This will therefore aim to show the role that biodiversity plays in such issues as tackling poverty and creating economic opportunity and seeks to link the complex issues facing society with the potential solutions.

The Declaration followed one of the recommendations from the First Assessment Report for government to invest in ‘natural capital’ as this would help to deliver significant co-benefits for sustainable development as expenditure to meet the Aichi Biodiversity Targets should be recognised as part of wider investment needs for promoting sustainable development.

The report had also stated that “Without immediate action, the social and economic costs of biodiversity loss and the loss of ecosystem services will be felt at an accelerating rate in the future and will limit growth and stability. Investments made now will reduce resource requirements in the future.” 

The UN Under-Secretary-General and Executive Director of the UN Environment Programme (UNEP), Achim Steiner, reaffirmed this when he said that:

“The cost of inaction to halt biodiversity decline would give rise to increasing and cumulative economic annual losses to the value of around $14 trillion by 2050,”  

The “Gangwon Declaration” holds significance because this is only the fourth adoption of a declaration in the history of CBD COPs.

Saving biodiversity – the role of art and culture

The old adage that ‘a picture is worth a thousand words’ is now being put into action by a number of major biodiversity and environmental organisations.   An example of this is the Museum of Nature and Culture is a part of the Secretariat of the Convention on Biodiversity.  The Convention has three primary aims:

  1. The conservation of biological diversity;
  2. The sustainable use of the components of biological diversity; and
  3. The fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources.

It was introduced in 1992 due to the growing recognistion that the Earth’s biological resources are vital to humanity’s economic and social development. As a result, there is a growing recognition that biological diversity is a global asset of tremendous value to present and future generations. At the same time, the threat to species and ecosystems has never been so great as it is today. Species extinction caused by human activities continues at an alarming rate.

Communicating the vital role that biodiversity and ecosystems play in our everyday life is one of the major challenges facing those working in the field.  Recently WWF has produced a TV advertisement, which depicts the many every day items that derive from the natural world around us.   The RSPB also uses this medium to encourage us to entice wildlife into our gardens with their ‘If you build it, they will come” campaign, with overtures to the film Fields of Dreams.

Creativity is an integral element of connecting people with the natural world around them.  Yet nature plays an integral part in our cultural heritage.  The CBD Musuem of Nature and Culture recognises this by stating that a work of art can often illustrate volumes more than mere words about the intricate cultural and social fabric of a country.  It provides an opportunity for Parties to the Convention to share their cultural inheritance with the world, and to publicly showcase their country’s unique biological diversity in an artistic and symbolic way.

Painting from Mauritius on display at the CBD Museum for Nature and Culture
Painting from Mauritius on display at the CBD Museum for Nature and Culture

The IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature) uses video to communicate its work including overage of its field projects, key speeches and interviews with IUCN experts, reports from international events and short documentaries explaining current conservation issues.   With a number of partner orgnisations (e.g. Greenpeace, UNEP, WWF, Friends of the Eart, Oxfam and RSPB) it showcases its work via Green.TV.   The channels on Green.TV cover a wide variety of topics from business, climate change to technology, nature and energy.

The Wild law conference in Australia in September 2013 will include an Art Exhibition called “Reorientation – human centred to earth centred”.  Staff and students at the Queensland College of Art, through aesthetic forms and images, intend to explore the need to shift from a human centred world view to an earth centred world view.  Through the use of a variety of media, the works of art will provide the backdrop and context for discussing ethics, law and environmental responsibility.

Wild law (or Earth jurisprudence) is an emerging theory of law that stresses human interconnectedness and dependence with the natural world. Recognition of human interconnectedness with nature is a prerequisite for ecological sustainability and should be recognised as the foundation of legal systems.  The current legal system is human-centred and has been shaped to promote infinite economic growth and industrial development. The result is that the environment is seen as a resource that belongs to human beings for human exploitation.  Wild law attempts to redress this by promoting a number of key principles including: the intrinsic right of nature to exist and flourish, the need to create governance structures that enable human societies to fit within the limits of the natural world and the benefits of engaging with culturally diverse governance structures, including indigenous knowledge systems.

Earth Jurisprudence
Earth Jurisprudence

As an environmental lawyer, I am particularly attracted to the idea of a new theory of law that places Earth at its centre.  As someone who has been engaged with the arts for many years, I am particularly excited that art is placing a central role in communicating this theory.

Changing Carbon Behaviours in Welsh Arts Venues

The challenges raised by climate change and resource depletion may offer the major societal problems of our time.  Responses to these problems require interconnected, collaborative efforts to creatively and imaginatively develop solutions and responses.  Increasing dialogues by artists and arts organisations consider not only their own contribution to these global issues through their own behaviour but as cultural leaders in their own communities.

At the Future Climage Dialogues Conference at Aberystwyth University, Arts Centre on Thursday 13th June, Julie’s Bicycle presented a poster of the findings from the first phase of the Emergence/Creu Cymru project, which combines industry experts and academics drawing on collaborative processes to engage with art venues across Wales to address sustainable development in the context of the built environment and theatre estate.

Inspired by the Welsh Government’s ‘One Wales; One Planet’ concept, Emergence-Eginiad is an initiative that began in 2010 as a partnership between the Volcano theatre company and Cynnal Cymru-Sustain Wales. Creu Cymru (the development agency for theatres and arts centres in Wales) also identified a need among its members to consider
environmental and other sustainability matters and so started a research process with the project partners: Julie’s bicycle, Creu Cymru, Cardiff University (me) and Cynnal Cymru.

Engaging with the arts community, the project utilises both quantitative and qualitative methods from science and social science to understand the challenges facing these organisations and develop solutions and responses to these challenges and improve resilience within the theatre estate to supply chain pressures.

The project focuses on three key areas:

  • Consumption and reduction of energy and waste;
  • The supply chain of theatre production and touring; and
  • Imagining the future through communicating to audiences the issues and potential solutions of sustainability.

The first phase of the project provided the team with a baseline of carbon behaviours within the Creu Cymru member art venues and centres, which includes a baseline of engagement and activity on environmental sustainabilityand based on questionnaire responses from an in-depth online questionnaire, the selection of pilot group of venues for participation in Stage 2 of the project for which funding has just been received from the Welsh Government’s Supporting Sustainable Living Grant Scheme.

The second phase of the project will start very soon with 18 pilot venues, who will work with the project team on improving sustainability within their venues.  This will be accomplished through a series of webinar training sessions; national events; creation of a sustainability toolkit; and individual action plans for participants.Poster

Emergence sustainability journey continues for theatres and arts venues across Wales

In securing Welsh Government Support for Sustainable Living funding via Environment Wales for the next 12 months – Creu Cymru (the development agency for theatres and arts venues across Wales),  will be continuing an ambitious and really important project that will benefit staff, performers, customers and local communities.

The project will involve 18 theatres and arts centres from across Wales, including the likes of the Wales Millennium Centre, Theatr Brycheiniog, Hafren, and Galeri Caernarfon. To deliver the project Creu Cymru will continue their close work with Emergence founders Cynnal Cymru and Volcano Theatre, along with sustainability experts from Julie’s Bicycle and Cardiff University.

SSL is a funding scheme which aims to bring about long term changes in behaviour and lifestyle to help reduce emissions – in the case of Emergence it’s all about adapting the way venues operate, how staff work and how performances are carried out. The sustainable solutions generated from the pilot group of venues will be shared amongst others across Wales and it’s hoped will inspire audiences, local communities, and other organisations.

The funding will be used to carry out a series of information sharing webinars, national events, to develop a bilingual sustainability toolkit, and to create venue specific action plans – that will reduce harmful environmental impacts, save money, and support the wider community.

Deborah Keyser (Director, Creu Cymru) said “The news that the Emergence project had secured SSL funding is brilliant. The project has already brought people together – ensuring venues work closely together and providing a combination of internal and external expertise.  Over the next year, sustainable practices will be enhanced and we are all looking forward to trying new things and contributing to a sustainable Wales.”

Catherine Langabeer (Operations Director, Julie’s Bicycle) said “We hope this second stage of Emergence will demonstrate that addressing sustainability is both deeply urgent and profoundly rewarding for all involved. We are delighted to continue our work with the venues and look forward to harnessing expertise from all participants to strengthen the sustainability of these special buildings.”

Lori Frater (Senior Research Associate, Cardiff University) said “It’s excellent news that this important and valuable project has been rewarded with continued funding, which will provide us with the opportunity to continue to develop our understanding of the challenges and opportunities of sustainability within the pilot venues and to work together to enhance the benefits of sustainability.”

Rhodri Thomas (Cynnal Cymru) said “Emergence has already shown how effective partnership working in this community focused sector can make sustainable change happen. The arts sector has an important role in inspiring people and helping tackle the problem of climate change – and this big issue will be taken on over the next year.”Image

Valuing the Arts: more than money can buy

The culture Minister Maria Miller announced on the 24 April 2013 that the ‘arts’ must make their economic case and be part of the country’s economic growth.  As someone from a city where the arts were available to all for either no or very little cost, this statement is an outrageous mis-understanding of the role of arts in our society.

I have lost count of the number of amazing, thought-provoking and inspiring productions that I had the pleasure of watching at the Citizen’s Theatre in Glasgow for less than £5 as the ethos of the organisation was to ensure that price was never a barrier.  Where the amazing collections of art and artificats were available for free at the Burrell Collection and the Kelvingrove Art Gallery.  Cost was seen as a barrier and one that could restrict the arts to a select few.

One of the main problems with economic evaluation is a potential that only those organisations that can show economic return will be funded and this means those organisations that are already charging exessive ticket prices and therefore limiting the arts to only those who can afford to pay £75 for a play.  In the end subsisdy is then provided to those who can afford it.

Art has the ability to connect and affect us all in ways that cannot be measured by pound signs and economic return.   To reduce the arts to the bottom line is to deny the role of the arts in our society as a means of delivering social policy and encouraging community development.  Cultural activities are a mechanism for building social capital, particularly in relation to bringing groups of people together from both similar and different cultures.   In addition, cultural activities have also the ability to challenge people’s ideas about their own and other ethnic cultures.

The recent comment by the culture Minister fails to appreciate the role that the arts have in enriching not only our individual lives but that of our communities.   Cultural activities are important for community cohesion through participating in events and coming togethere for a common cause.   Those art organisations that work with communities and community groups, who will struggle to show economic return but their social return is unquantitifiable and more than money can buy…..


“All the world’s a ‘sustainable’ stage…”

This paper provides an overview of research undertaken at the Centre for Business Relationships, Accountability, Sustainability and Society on sustainability within the arts.

A key aspect of life as an academic researcher is to engage in knowledge transfer partnerships.  For an academic this offers the opportunity to apply their knowledge and expertise to important problems facing businesses, while developing their own skills and expanding their research material.  The aim is that all parties benefit and that research organisations will bring their experience to enhance the business relevance of research.

BRASS’ work with the creative industries in Wales has resulted in the development of partnerships, networks and the exchange of knowledge, skills and expertise on the sustainability issues facing the sector.   Through collaborative working, BRASS researchers have assisted in the development of sustainability baselines for the sector, measurement tools, bespoke audits and transport plans[1] as well as the foundation for social sustainability indicators.

stage lighting

Environmental issues offer particular challenges for many arts organisations.  Energy consumption from stage electrics, including lighting and sound systems can offer particular issues and contribute to a company’s carbon footprint.  The transportation of sets, props and costumes for local, national and international tours also offer their own unique challenges, particularly international tours, which have a negative impact on the production’s carbon and ecological footprint with few possibilities of reducing the impact.   For modern venues the use of air-conditioning can contribute significantly to their carbon footprint.  In television production, cast and crews may need to travel great distances to locations, whilst the transportation of costumes, make-up and hair equipment can also result in high carbon emissions.

Creative and cultural practices would struggle to exist without access to and use of natural resources. However, these activities, such as the production of CDs, the construction of sets and the transportation of crews and the promotion of festivals come at a cost to natural ecosystems.  The arts like every other industry, needs to examine its policies and practices in order to reduce its impact.

arts 2

BRASS researchers have been working with the creative industries in developing methods and strategies to promote sustainability within the sector.  This has included working with leading theatre companies, local venues and a major television drama producer to improve their environmental sustainability and assist them to adapt to a low carbon economy.  This is in addition to a major survey for the Arts Council of Wales on the sustainability of rural touring.

A significant aspect of the research being undertaken by BRASS is the development of a green audit specifically for theatre productions and venue operations.  The purpose of the audit is to benchmark the environmental impacts of current production, technical, administrative and support activities,  which enables an analysis of potential areas for improvement, allows for targets to be set and provides information for implementation measures and where relevant a dissemination plan to raise awareness amongst employees.

The green audit provides a baseline analysis from which drama organisations can then make certain determinations in the direction they wish to proceed.  The baseline information can be used to set targets for the company, and be the basis for an implementation and action plan on how the company intends to reach the desired targets.

Measuring sustainability within the arts is gaining increasing prominence.  The Arts Council for England announced recently that it would be the first arts funding body in the world to embed environmental sustainability into the funding agreements of its major programmes.  As a minimum requirement funded organisations will need to measure and improve their water and energy use.   BRASS in partnership with Julie’s Bicycle[2] and Creu Cymru[3] have established a partnership in Wales, which will measure the baseline of environmental sustainability across 42 theatre and arts venue that are members of the Creu Cymru network[4].  Based on the results of the baseline study venues will be given the tools and advice needed to strengthen their environmental, social and economic sustainability with the long term aim of assessing the role of the arts as a driver for sustainable change along their supply chain, which includes the actions and activities of audiences and touring production companies to assist in the shift of public understanding and behaviour.

BRASS researchers have also worked in partnership with the Arts Council of Wales[5] (ACW) to assess the combined social, economic and environmental impacts of venues, performers and audiences participating in or attending rural touring events.   Touring is a key economic activity for many performers yet whilst it can (although not always) result in high carbon emissions from performers travelling to and from events, it also results in high social impacts through extending the reach of the arts to rural communities across Britain as well as providing and developing opportunities for community involvement and community cohesion.

Whilst considerable attention is focused on environmental impacts; energy, waste and carbon emissions in particular, from a sustainability perspective these need to be assessed in light of their social and economic impacts.  The key aim of the work with ACW has been to acknowledge that environmental impacts do not operate in a vacuum and that when measuring sustainability one has to measure and balance all of the three sustainability pillars.   In order to encourage positive environmental impacts, the positive social impacts should not be diminished or overlooked.  The results of the project not only identify areas for improving the scheme in ways that will assist participating organisations but also providing ACW will evidence of the social and economic importance of the scheme; important in a time of financial retrenching.

The aim of working in partnership is to draw on the experience of the sustainability experts and of those on the ground who know the challenges facing and opportunities available to venues and performers, combining their expertise to develop realistic solutions as well as practical opportunities and resources.  In return, BRASS researchers have had the opportunity to turn theory into reality, to develop methodologies and have access to both quantitative and qualitative data as well as gain invaluable insight into a sector eager to engage on sustainability.

[1] BBC Wales Bespoke Transport Plan, BRASS for BBC Wales

[2] Julie’s Bicycle is a non-profit company working across the arts and creative industries, providing expertise in environmental sustainability to over 350 organisations in the UK and internationally.

[3] Creu Cymru is the development agency for theatres and arts centres in Wales.

[4] Creu Cymru/Emergence, Creu Cymru, Julie’s Bicycle and BRASS

[5] Measuring Sustainability: An assessment of the social, environmental and economic impacts of the Night Out Scheme in Wales 2011, BRASS for Arts Council for Wales; Social Sustainability in Community Touring, BRASS with National Theatre Wales

environment, sustainability, arts, media, technology

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